There is a bullet on the base of the sculpture by Chief Looking Glass' foot indicating he died on the battlefield at Bear Paw.
c. 1832-1877) was a principal Nez Perce
architect of many of the military strategies employed by the Nez Perce during the Nez Perce War
of 1877. He, along with Chief Joseph
, directed the 1877 retreat from eastern Oregon
and onward toward the Canada–US border
during the Nez Perce War
He led the Alpowai band of the Nez Perce, which included the communities of Asotin, Alpowa, and Sapachesap along the Clearwater River
in Idaho. He inherited his name from his father, the prominent Nez Percé chief Apash Wyakaikt
("Flint Necklace") or Ippakness Wayhayken
("Looking Glass Around Neck") and was therefore called by the whites Looking Glass
The Nez Perce War
Although he disliked white encroachments on his ancestral lands, Looking Glass opposed going to war with the United States over its plans to force all the Nez Perce onto the reduced Indian reservation assigned to them at Lapwai, Idaho. His village of about 140 people was already within the bounds of the reservation on the site of the present-day Kooskia National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. However, General Oliver Otis Howard believed reports that Looking Glass planned to join the Nez Perce led by Chief Joseph, who resisted moving to the reservation, and sent a military force of 66 men under Captain Stephen Whipple to arrest Looking Glass. Whipple and his men arrived at the village on July 1. After a random shot was fired by an unknown party, the soldiers opened fire on the village with Gatling guns. Looking Glass and most of his band escaped, but the village and property was destroyed by the soldiers.
After the attack, Looking Glass and his followers joined Joseph's band, raising the total number of the group to about 800 men, women, and children. Looking Glass persuaded the others to flee eastwards across the Bitterroot Mountains, thus beginning a three-month, 1,400 miles (2,300 km) fighting retreat. Because of his experience, Looking Glass became perhaps the most important battle leader of the Nez Perce. His prestige, however, was diminished when he allowed the Nez Perce to be surprised by the U.S. army at the Battle of the Big Hole.
Looking Glass encouraged the Nez Perce to travel east and seek sanctuary with the Crow nation in Montana. He had helped the Crow defeat the Dakota Sioux in a battle in 1874 and considered them friends. However, the Crow, fearing retaliation by the U.S. military, refused to grant the Nez Perce sanctuary. The Nez Perce, pursued by the army, then turned north to attempt reaching safety in Canada. However, on September 29, 1877, they were surrounded 40 miles (64 km) short of Canada in the Bear Paw Mountains of Montana. After the five-day siege and the Battle of Bear Paw Chief Joseph proposed surrender. White Bird and Looking Glass opposed the surrender and they and their bands attempted to break through the siege and continue on to Canada and join the Lakota leader Sitting Bull. White Bird and 150 Nez Perce succeeded but Looking Glass was killed by a Cheyenne scout employed by the Army. Joseph's famous surrender speech later that same day, October 5, mentioned that Looking Glass was dead.
On July 1, 2000, 123 years after the attack on Looking Glass's village, the Nez Perce dedicated a nature trail on the site, and three years later put up a commemorative marker. A fishing area three miles north of Florence, Montana was dedicated to him also, in 1971.
Manuel, now 82 years of age is still designing and producing new works, is a well-known sculptor who has created a number of public works, including a series of statues of John Wayne. He has been named both the official sculptor of the Oregon Trail and the official sculptor of the United States Marshals bicentennial.
David Manuel, born in 1940 of Italian descent and raised in Walla Walla, Washington, began his career in art at a very early age. David's aunt sold his sketches to pilots at a nearby bomber training base. The sketches, selling for a dime each, proved David's talents at age 3 1/2 years. Later, a first grade teacher recognized David's talent, encouraging his mother to be supportive. At age nine, David received his first national award, which was judged by Norman Rockwell.
David continued his art abilities throughout his school years and as a young adult. This included having one-man shows inside a Safeway store where he was employed. His first painting sold for $45.00.
David Manuel's career has grown rapidly, with his paintings valued as high as $20,000 and into the three dimensional art world. Much of David's success is attributed to having his own museum, where he is able to spend hours in research. The "Nez Perce Crossing" Museum is where the authenticity for which he is so respected originates.
The world of bronzes have been very good to David. In the 1980s he had the honor of many commissions, among these are three monuments of JOHN WAYNE. This gained him the title of "Authorized Sculptor" for Wayne Enterprises. Later in the '80s, David was chosen the Official Sculptor for the "UNITED STATES MARSHALS BICENTENNIAL." This monument previously on display in the founder's wing at the Cowboy Hall of Fame, is now placed at the Department of Justice in Washington D.C. A smaller replica of this bronze has found its home at the White House in Washington D.C.
n 1992, David and his wife Lee were honored with a request from the office of the Oregon Trail Coordinating Council, Oregon Trail Celebration '93. Among many honors this included a monument designed by the artist. This assignment also held the title of "The Official Sculptor for the Oregon Trail." The political uprising from this statue gained national recognition and respect for the artist who was proud to portray historical accuracy in place of political correctness; David's faith proved to be beneficial and met approval by many. In the year 2002, David sculpted what may be recognized as the most complete depiction of Lewis and Clark.
In 2005 "The Bronze Valley" in Northeastern Oregon expanded into La Grande. Hot Lake Springs, rich in the Native American and Pioneer history. Could it be that the final home of Manuel History and Bronze has been found?
One will need to be alert to say the least, to keep up with "what's happening" with this, accomplished, and still accomplishing artist.
The Lost Wax Process
- The artist's completed sculpture is taken to the foundry where it is photographed and measured.
- The clay is then cut into pieces, depending on how the resulting molds will best pick up the detail and receive the wax and metal poured into it. These molds—made of silicone rubber—are covered with a thick, plaster outer mold.
- Several coats of wax are poured into a mold. After the wax has cooled, it is removed from the mold.
- Wax chasers clean, smooth, and remove any imperfections left by the mold. Any imperfections passed over—even a small scratch or bubble—won't be caught until the sculpture is in bronze. David inspects each wax before it moves to the next step.
- The wax is then "sprued." The wax sculpture is attached to a wax cup with sprue wax channels. These channels allow the metal to reach all the details of the sculpture.
- Eight coats of slurry are applied with 24 hours drying time between each coat, resulting in a thick ceramic shell around the wax.
- These shells are put in a burn out oven and heated to 1500 degrees to melt out the wax, leaving an empty cavity for the bronze.
- The hot shells go into the pouring room and are heated to 2200 degrees. The bronze casting workers fill each shell with molten bronze.
- Sledge and jack hammers are used to carefully chip the shell off the bronze. The sculpture is sandblasted to remove smaller debris.
- Metal toolers begin welding the pieces back together, aligning, buffing, grinding, and repairing the detail and texture until the sculpture looks as if it were cast in one piece.
- The final step is patina. Color is put on the bronze with heat and chemicals. Hot waxed seals the patina and ceases any chemical reactions. After receiving a base, the bronze is ready to be displayed.